Module 5: Configure and Manage Virtual Networks
Standard virtual switch/ Distributed virtual switch
Enable the PortFast, Trunk and EtherChannel in the physical switch port that is connected to the physical host NIC
802.3AD – NIC teaming, 802.1Q – VLAN trunking
Network policies: Security/ Traffic Shaping/ NIC teaming
– Promiscuous Mode: e.g. intrusion detection system
– MAC Address Changes: e.g. new guest
– Forged Transmits: e.g. network load balancer
Traffic Shaping (disabled by default): ESXi only shapes outbound traffic by establishing parameters for three traffic characteristics: average bandwidth, peak bandwidth and burst size
– Load balancing (outbound only): Originating port ID, Source MAC Hash and IP Hash (higher CPU overhead but better distribution of traffic across physical NICs.
– Network failure detection: link status or link status plus beaconing
– Notify switches: do not set this when port group is running unicase-mode Microsoft NLB
– Failover order
Module 6: Configure and Manage Virtual Storage
DAS, FC, FCoE, iSCSI and NAS
Shared storage + Block device are two key elements for all vSphere functions
Types of datestore: VMFS or NFS
VMFS 5: Clustered file system, uses 1MB block size, can be dynamically expanded, Uses subblock addressing which is good for storing small files.
Canonical name: The NAA (Network Address Authority) ID is a unique LUN identifier, and it is persistent across reboots (naa-FC, t10-iSCSI, mpx-local device)
Runtime name is not persistent through reboots
Physical Storage Consideration
software iSCSI/ dependent hardware iSCSI/ independent hardware iSCSI
A VMkernel port must be created for ESXi to access software iSCSI.
NFS: NFS admin must use no_root_squash instead of using root_squash to export
vSphere 5 introduces the software FCoE adapter
Multipathing with Fibre Channel
VMFS can have a maximum volume size of 64 TB.
Incresing the size of a VMFS datastore: Add an extent LUN or Expand the datastore within its extent
PSA (Pluggable Storage Architecture) is a VMkernel layer responsible for managing multiple storage paths and providing the load-balancing. ESXi host can be attached to a storage array with a storage processor configuration of Active-Active or Active-Passive or LUA (Logical Unit Asymmetric)
VMware offers native load-balancing and failover mechanisms: Round Robin, Most Recently Used and Fixed. It is always recommended to use vendor supplied driver for ESXi if there is one!!
VSA – vSphere Storage Appliance